A few words on the current French partners:
- SHOM (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine):
SHOM is the French hydrographic and oceanographic service. Among its many roles, SHOM is in charge of tidal analysis and predictions, in particular for nautical chart datum definition and sounding reduction. To carry out its hydrographic and tidal activities, SHOM is implementing a modern network of tide gauges called RONIM. RONIM is based on radar gauges, as well as modern data communications. In addition to its invaluable expertise and experience on tide gauges, SHOM operates a permanent GPS station at the historical sea level station of Brest. (The first sea level observations were performed by the astronomers La Hire and Picard in Brest in 1679).
- LEGOS (Laboratoire d’Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiale):
LEGOS is a joint research unit from CNES (Centre Nationale des Etudes Spatiales), CNRS (Institut des Sciences de l’Univers) and the Université Paul Sabatier. LEGOS maintains a tide gauge network in the Subantarctic and Antarctic zones of the Indian Ocean. The network is called ROSAME.
- IGN (Institut Géographique National):
IGN is the French national mapping and geodetic agency. This agency is familiar with GPS techniques. It has been involved in the international services IGS and EUREF since the very beginning (Global data center, national permanent GPS network…). The ground segment of the French DORIS positioning system is under the responsibility of IGN (installation and maintenance of a worldwide network of about 50 tracking beacons). IGN is also involved in IERS (Terrestrial Reference Section). Last but not least, IGN has operated a historical tide gauge in Marseille since 1885. The scientific activities in geodesy are carried out in the IGN lab called LAREG.
- LIENSS (Littoral Environnement et SociétéS) :
LIENSs is a joint research unit from CNRS and the Université de la Rochelle. The topics of interest in the DPL team of LIENSs are related to the ocean - land interface with a line of research on sea level variations. Geophysical and geodetic techniques are deployed in order to carry out its research activities; in particular the DPS team has gained expertise in global GPS data analyses to estimate vertical land motions. It contributes to the EUREF and IGS networks through the permanent GPS stations in Chizé and La Rochelle. CLDG is involved in the TIGA IGS pilot project. It hosts the SONEL data assembly centre from the GLOSS program of IOC/UNESCO.
Although SHOM and IGN represent important governmental agencies where many observations are made, relatively small but numerous and independent organisms perform either tide gauge or individual GPS measurements in a permanent mode (Harbors, Maritime Services, labs etc.).